India and Russia
Since 2001, India and Russia have entered into a number of major deals. They include Admiral Gorshkov, Project 971 (Akula II-class) nuclear submarine, INS Nerpa (K-152), 45 MiG-29KuB naval fighters, 140–150 Su-30 MKI multi-role fighter aircraft in 2001, to which a further 42 were added in 2010, 657 T90S MBTs, 120 Mi-17-V medium lift helicopters, 3 Talwar class frigates (3 more under construction), multiple rocket launch systems, joint production of BrahMos missiles, mid-life upgrades of INS Kilo-class submarines, upgradation of 67 ‘Fulcrum’ MiG-29B/S fighters and upgradation of five Ilyushin II 38 maritime reconnaissance aircraft to the IL-38SD configuration.India annually conducts $1.5 billion worth of defense business with Russia and, since the early 1960s has acquired military goods worth over $40 billion from it. These comprise over 70 percent of India’s military inventory and include combat and transport aircraft, submarines, surface warships, tanks, artillery systems, infantry combat vehicles, heavy lift and attack helicopters and a varied range of ordnance and missiles. According to the Russian Centre for Analysis of International Weapons Trade in 2010–2013, India would account for 54.4 percent of Russian weapons exports estimated at over $15 billion.A future indicator of this relationship is the India–Russia joint development of the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) in a deal estimated at over $35 billion. Some 250–300 FGFA will eventually form the backbone of the IAFs 39-odd fighter squadrons alongside around 280 Russian Su-30MkI multi-role combat fighters.
India and Japan
India and Japan signed strategic and global partnership during India’s former PM Manmohan Singh’s visit to Japan in 2006.India and Japan’s strategic partnership is mainly based on maritime securities, civil nuclear cooperation, and economic interest.India and Japan shared common interest over sea lanes securities in both Indian Ocean and another side of Malacca Strait from where millions of barrels of oil pass every day.Indian and Japanese conducts joint military maritime exercise along with the United States.India and Japan signed the ‘Agreement for cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy’ during an annual bilateral summit held in Tokyo on Nov 2016.japan under this treaty will transfer nuclear technologies and help to build reactors in India.japan for the first time signed civil nuclear deal with the country which is not a signatory to Non-Proliferation Treaty(NPT).india and Japan may deepen defence ties with the purchase of 12 US-2 ShinMaywa Amphibious search and rescue aircraft for the service of Indian Navy. India and Japan signed Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement(CEPA) in 2011.Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) world’s largest infrastructure projects worth $90 billion brings huge opportunities for Japanese investors.
India and United States
As per our analysis, the economic relationship with the USA ranks the highest, with not only a strong existing relationship but the potential for it to move to a higher plane. Among the countries considered, the US’ share of total trade and investment in India was by far the highest, with the share in trade amounting to 7.3 percent in 2010–11 and the share in total Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow amounting to 6.7 percent during April 2000–August 2011. India also enjoys a trade surplus with the US, exporting goods worth
$25 billion and imports amounting to $20 billion. These figures do not include trade in services, where again India enjoys a significant share in the US market. Our ranking of eight for potential economic cooperation is based on business opportunities that exist in many areas, including critical ones, such as banking and finance, infrastructure and electronics. In addition, the presence of a large Indian diaspora in the US raises the potential for greater trade and investment flows. At the same time, it is felt that the potential for further economic cooperation is limited by certain restrictions and conditionalities imposed by the US pertaining to the dual use and high technology trade.
India and United Kingdom
Defence ties between the two countries have come a long way from the post- Independence era when India was majorly dependent on the UK for military materiel. The only major deal in the last decade was when IAF acquired 66 Advanced Jet Trainers (AJTs) in 2004 from the UK in flyaway condition, with a provision for 42 to be assembled locally. A deal for 57 additional AJTs was signed in 2010. Ties with the UK will remain in direct proportion to the restricted range of military equipment it can provide, like advanced jet trainers, aircraft engines and limited add-ons like tactical communication systems, nuclear biological and chemical detection and protection kits, tank tracks, artillery calibration instrumentation, remote motion sensors and multi-spectral camouflage nets. This situation is unlikely to change except in collaboration with conglomerates like EADS that includes Italy, Spain, and Germany, whose Eurofighter is vying for the Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) tender. Consequently, we have graded the UK at four, three, and three in the respective
India and Germany
The strategic partnership between India and Germany is mainly based on economic interests and to some extent on defense. Germany is also India’s second largest trading partner in Europe.Trade between India and Germany stood Euro 17.5 billion in 2012.Some economist predicated, trade between India and Germany may touch $25 billion by 2018.Germany has only recently come to appreciate India’s position with regard to terrorism, especially after it has itself been faced with terrorism. In December 2010, German Chancellor Angela Merkel set aside the nuanced German approach to Pakistan and told it not to use terrorism as a ‘means to solve political problems’. On nuclear issues, India and Germany had started discussing the possibility of civilian nuclear cooperation in 2010. However, in May 2011, Germany has announced its plans to shut all its nuclear power reactors by 2022, which would have wide-ranging ramifications for India–Germany nuclear cooperation. Germany supports India’s candidature at the UNSC, as India and Germany are joint contenders for UNSC permanent membership since 2004.
India and France
The strategic partnership between both countries is based on civil nuclear cooperation and counter-terrorism.France is the first country to sign Strategic Partnership with India in 1998.India and France both have Strong defense ties.The strategic partnership between the two countries is based on three important pillars, i.e. civil nuclear cooperation, defense relations and to some extent terrorism. As a strategic
partner, French support to India has been unflinching. In fact, along with Russia, it had desisted from issuing a strong condemnation and imposing wide-ranging sanctions against India after the 1998 nuclear tests.Indo-French technological collaboration also covers a wide number of areas like solar thermal technology, robotics, and control systems, besides defense technology. India has also depended on France for many years for the launching of its heavy satellites.In the last decade, France has consistently condemned terrorist killings in India being conducted at the behest of Pakistan. Post-26/11, it has backed the evidence that India had given to Pakistan on the Mumbai attacks. In his visit in 2010, President Sarkozy strongly condemned Pakistan for providing a safe haven to terror outfits, stating that this was ‘unacceptable’. He also minced no words in stating that terrorism emanating from Afghanistan and Pakistan was the major source of instability in the world, and strongly argued against the return of the Taliban in the name of reconciliation. Recently, in May 2011, France has also signaled a temporary freeze on arms sales to Pakistan.